What is SETD1B-related disorder?
SETD1B gene encodes for protein involved in histone methylation, a lysine-specific histone methyltransferase that assists in the transcriptional activation of nearby genes. SETD1B gene modifies chromatin structure and can cause downstream effects on gene expression. 1,3 SETD1B-related disorder has been associated with syndromic intellectual developmental and neurodevelopmental disorders. Most reported individuals have intellectual disability (mild to severe) and seizures. Other conditions reported include autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, global delay, fine and gross motor delay, vision impairment, dysmorphic features (e.g., round face, large earlobe) and hypotonia (low muscle tone).1,2,3
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Frequently asked questions
There is much variation in the developmental presentation of children with SETD1B-related disorder. The presence and severity of other associated features (e.g., intellectual disability) may also affect speech development. Based on present research, some children with SETD1B-related disorder will take more time to reach developmental speech and language milestones relative to peers, while other children with SETD1B-related disorder will have typical speech development. 1,2,3
There is large variation in speech and language development of individuals with SETD1B-related disorders. One speech condition that has been linked to SETD1B-related disorder is Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS). CAS is a motor speech disorder affecting production, sequencing, and stress of speech.2 Another common feature of speech reported in SETD1B-related disorder is phonological error patterns.
There is considerable variability between individuals with this condition. Currently, there is not enough data to inform exactly how speech develops overtime and when certain milestones can be anticipated. Some individuals do not develop enough verbal speech to rely on this for their daily communication needs. These individuals require augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems to communicate, whilst other individuals can rely on verbal speech to communicate. 1,3
Of the individuals reported to date in the scientific literature, some individuals attend school for children with specific speech and language impairments2. However, any individual should be assessed for their needs, and should attend the most appropriate education setting based on their needs, the supports available in different educational settings and of course taking into consideration local educational policies.
At present, speech and language therapies are focused on the individual’s specific speech and language needs. A speech pathology assessment will pinpoint the specific areas for support, taking into consideration the goals for the individual/family. Children who have few spoken words or some words that are unclear, may benefit from augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) options (e.g., sign language, electronic speech generating devices).
For verbal children who have CAS, the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme version 3 (NDP-3) or the Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment (ReST), are two programs which have been proven to be effective in a randomised controlled trial.4 There are currently a number of other CAS focused therapies undergoing rigorous clinical testing, including Dynamic Tactile Temporal Cueing.5 One treatment that is often used for children who are minimally verbal and who benefit from tactile prompts (prompts to the lips, cheek etc) to help stimulate speech production is Prompts for Restructuring Oral Muscular Phonetic Targets (PROMPT). 6,7 Yet to date, none of these therapies have not been specifically trialled with children with neurogenetic conditions. Further to the speech production therapies, children who have delayed language also require early intervention programs targeting early language development.8
- Weerts, M. J., Lanko, K., Guzmán-Vega, F. J., Jackson, A., Ramakrishnan, R., Cardona-Londoño, K. J., ... & Genomics England Research Consortium. (2021). Delineating the molecular and phenotypic spectrum of the SETD1B-related syndrome. Genetics in Medicine, 23(11), 2122-2137.
- Kaspi, A., Hildebrand, M. S., Jackson, V. E., Braden, R., Van Reyk, O., Howell, T., ... & Morgan, A. T. (2022). Genetic aetiologies for childhood speech disorder: novel pathways co-expressed during brain development. Molecular psychiatry, 1-17.
- Roston, A., Evans, D., Gill, H., McKinnon, M., Isidor, B., Cogné, B., ... & Gibson, W. T. (2021). SETD1B-associated neurodevelopmental disorder. Journal of Medical Genetics, 58(3), 196-204.
- Murray, E., McCabe, P., & Ballard, K. J. (2015). A randomized controlled trial for children with childhood apraxia of speech comparing rapid syllable transition treatment and the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme–Third Edition. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 58(3), 669-686.
- Strand, E. A. (2020). Dynamic temporal and tactile cueing: A treatment strategy for childhood apraxia of speech. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 29(1), 30-48.
- Morgan, A. T., Murray, E., & Liegeois, F. J. (2018). Interventions for childhood apraxia of speech. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (5).
- Namasivayam, A. K., Huynh, A., Granata, F., Law, V., & van Lieshout, P. (2021). PROMPT intervention for children with severe speech motor delay: a randomized control trial. Pediatric research, 89(3), 613-621.
- Ebbels, S. H., McCartney, E., Slonims, V., Dockrell, J. E., & Norbury, C. F. (2019). Evidence‐based pathways to intervention for children with language disorders. International journal of language & communication disorders, 54(1), 3-19.