What is DIP2C-related disorder?

DIP2C, a disco-interacting protein 2 C gene is a member of DIP2 gene family located on chromosome 10 on the p arm (10p15.3). DIP2C gene encodes amino acid polypeptides and plays a critical role in brain development. 1,2,3 DIP2C-related disorder has been associated with range of tumours and cancers, skeletal dysplasia (issues with bone development), and epilepsy. Most reported individuals with DIP2C-related disorder have autism. Other reported conditions in DIP2C-related disorders include fine and gross motor delays, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), developmental dyslexia, intellectual disability and cerebral palsy. 1,2,3,4,5



For further information, do get in touch with the CRE Speech and Language research team at:

Email: geneticsofspeech@mcri.edu.au

Phone: (03) 9936 6334

Frequently asked questions

There is much variation in the developmental presentation of children with DIP2C-related disorder. The presence and severity of other associated features (e.g., intellectual disability) may also affect speech development. Based on present research, children with DIP2C-related disorder will take more time to reach developmental speech and language milestones relative to peers. 1,5

There is large variation in speech and language abilities of individuals with DIP2C-related disorder. One speech condition that has been linked to DIP2C-related disorder is Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS). CAS is a motor speech disorder affecting production, sequencing, and stress of speech.5 Another feature of speech reported in DIP2C-related disorder is phonological delay.5


There is considerable variability between individuals with this condition. Currently, there is not enough data to inform exactly how speech develops overtime and when certain milestones can be anticipated. Some individuals do not develop enough verbal speech to rely on this for their daily communication needs. These individuals require augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems to communicate, whilst other individuals can rely on verbal speech to communicate.

The education background of only individual has been published in the literature so far. This individual attended mainstream school setting.5 However, any individual should be assessed for their needs, and should attend the most appropriate education setting based on their needs, the supports available in different educational settings and of course taking into consideration local educational policies.

At present, speech and language therapies are focused on the individual’s specific speech and language needs. A speech pathology assessment will pinpoint the specific areas for support, taking into consideration the goals for the individual/family. Children who have few spoken words or some words that are unclear, may benefit from augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) options (e.g., sign language, electronic speech generating devices).

For verbal children who have CAS, the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme version 3 (NDP-3) or the Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment (ReST), are two programs which have been proven to be effective in a randomised controlled trial.6 There are currently a number of other CAS focused therapies undergoing rigorous clinical testing, including Dynamic Tactile Temporal Cueing.7 One treatment that is often used for children who are minimally verbal and who benefit from tactile prompts (prompts to the lips, cheek etc) to help stimulate speech production is Prompts for Restructuring Oral Muscular Phonetic Targets (PROMPT). 8,9 Yet to date, none of these therapies have not been specifically trialled with children with neurogenetic conditions. Further to the speech production therapies, children who have delayed language also require early intervention programs targeting early language development.10

For information and support on childhood apraxia of speech: https://www.apraxia-kids.org


  1. Li, Y., Sun, C., Guo, Y., Qiu, S., Li, Y., Liu, Y., ... & Liu, Y. (2022). DIP2C polymorphisms are implicated in susceptibility and clinical phenotypes of autism spectrum disorder. Psychiatry Research316, 114792.
  2. Yang, L., Zhao, S., Ma, N., Liu, L., Li, D., Li, X., ... & Wang, D. (2022). Novel DIP2C gene splicing variant in an individual with focal infantile epilepsy. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A188(1), 210-215.
  3. Larsson, C., Ali, M. A., Pandzic, T., Lindroth, A. M., He, L., & Sjöblom, T. (2017). Loss of DIP2C in RKO cells stimulates changes in DNA methylation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. BMC cancer17, 1-12.
  4. Zarrei, M., Fehlings, D. L., Mawjee, K., Switzer, L., Thiruvahindrapuram, B., Walker, S., ... & Scherer, S. W. (2018). De novo and rare inherited copy-number variations in the hemiplegic form of cerebral palsy. Genetics in Medicine20(2), 172-180.
  5. Kaspi, A., Hildebrand, M. S., Jackson, V. E., Braden, R., Van Reyk, O., Howell, T., ... & Morgan, A. T. (2022). Genetic aetiologies for childhood speech disorder: novel pathways co-expressed during brain development. Molecular psychiatry, 1-17.
  6. Murray, E., McCabe, P., & Ballard, K. J. (2015). A randomized controlled trial for children with childhood apraxia of speech comparing rapid syllable transition treatment and the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme–Third Edition. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research58(3), 669-686.
  7. Strand, E. A. (2020). Dynamic temporal and tactile cueing: A treatment strategy for childhood apraxia of speech. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology29(1), 30-48.
  8. Morgan, A. T., Murray, E., & Liegeois, F. J. (2018). Interventions for childhood apraxia of speech. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (5).
  9. Namasivayam, A. K., Huynh, A., Granata, F., Law, V., & van Lieshout, P. (2021). PROMPT intervention for children with severe speech motor delay: a randomized control trial. Pediatric research89(3), 613-621.
  10. Ebbels, S. H., McCartney, E., Slonims, V., Dockrell, J. E., & Norbury, C. F. (2019). Evidence‐based pathways to intervention for children with language disorders. International journal of language & communication disorders54(1), 3-19.

Proudly in partnership with